Most anal cancers seem to be linked to infection with the human papillomavirus HPV. While HPV infection seems to be important in the development of anal cancer, the vast majority of people with HPV infections do not get anal cancer. A great deal of research is now being done to learn how HPV might cause anal cancer. There is good evidence that HPV causes many anal squamous cell carcinomas. But the role of this virus in causing anal adenocarcinomas is less certain. More than subtypes of HPV have been found.
Muscles anal sphincters that surround the anal canal relax to allow waste to leave your body. Anal cancer is an uncommon type of cancer that occurs in the anal canal. The anal canal is a short tube at the end of your rectum through which stool leaves your body. Most people with anal cancer are treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation.
Having these risk factors does not mean that you will definitely develop cancer. Men and women with HPV have an increased risk of developing anal cancer. For most people the virus causes no harm and goes away without treatment. There are many different types of HPV, most are harmless, some cause genital warts, and others can cause cancer. People who have anal intercourse or who have a greater number of sexual partners may also have an increased risk of anal cancer.
Anal cancer is a type of cancer that forms in tissues of the anus. The anus is the opening of the rectum to the outside of the body and at the end of the GI tract. Sometimes anal cancer causes no symptoms at all. But bleeding is often the first sign of the disease.